(This information was provided by Dave Mathews of USA Wrestling)
The USA Wrestling PIN Ratings system is a measurement of a wrestler’s consistency over time.
It is based off the Elo system used in chess and several other sports organizations. The system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of payers in a zero-sum game such as combat sports, chess, tennis, and others where it is an individual competition. It is named after its creator Arpad Elo who was a Hungarian-American physics professor in the 1930’s
The difference in the ratings between two wrestlers serves as a predictor of the outcome of a match. Two wrestlers with equal ratings who play against each other are expected to score an equal number of wins. A wrestler whose rating is 100 points greater than their opponent's is expected to score 64%; if the difference is 200 points, then the expected score for the stronger wrestler is 76%. As you can see the higher the difference then the better the chances for winning.
A wrestler’s PIN rating is represented by a number which may change depending on the outcome of matches. After every match, the winning wrestler takes points from the losing one. The difference between the ratings of the winner and loser determines the total number of points gained or lost after a match. If the higher-rated wrestler wins, then fewer rating points will be taken from the lower-rated wrestler. However, if the lower-rated wrestler scores an upset win, many rating points will be transferred. This means that this rating system is self-correcting. Wrestlers whose ratings are too low or too high should, in the long run, do better or worse correspondingly than the rating system predicts and thus gain or lose rating points until the ratings reflect their true playing strength. The more data that the rating system has to work from the more accurate it will be.
About the USA Wrestling PIN: